Baseball Crank
Covering the Front and Back Pages of the Newspaper
January 5, 2011
POP CULTURE: The Lost Black Voice of Rock

Race is only skin deep, but so is voice; it's one attribute that is indelibly intertwined with racial identity. Let us consider the tragic loss of the black voice in rock n' roll.

Rise

Listen with me to the voice of Chester Arthur Burnett, a/k/a Howlin' Wolf*:

The birth of rock n' roll is usually traced back to the early African-American bluesmen, from Robert Johnson in the mid-1930s to Muddy Waters in the late 1940s and early 1950s. If you listen to those artists, you can see why; their vocal and guitar stylings are quite different from the prevailing Big Band, jazz and country/bluegrass sounds of their era, and you can hear echoes of the rock artists that have covered their songs and built on their foundation. But Johnson and Waters are not, themselves, rock; you would not confuse them with rock recordings. It's listening to the more raucous and powerful voice of Howlin' Wolf that you can hear, for the first time, the blues become something that would become rock. And Howlin' Wolf, even moreso than his predecessors, did so with a voice no white man could quite duplicate. It's why he was such a big influence on early rockers, especially the Rolling Stones, who - while they took their name almost by accident from a Muddy Waters song - not only imitated Howlin' Wolf but opened doors for him to perform with them on white television (which in the early 60s was the only kind of television there was):

Rock, from the time of its inception, was predominantly black music. Never solely so; for example, one of the genre's most important forefathers was electric guitar inventor Les Paul. Rock's early days included a lot of people like Jerry Lee Lewis who brought country influences into what became rockabilly (Carl Perkins, the King of Rockabilly, drew more obviously on both sources). And even Elvis, who famously got his big break because he was seen as a white man who could sing rock in the style of a black man, still drew a lot of his sound as a crooner from the Bing Crosby school of smooth singing. But many of the most dynamic, influential and oft-imitated early rockers - Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Fats Domino - were African-American. As those early stars faded and the first generation of great rock bands arrived, the influences of the black pioneers were obvious - the Beatles covered songs by Chuck Berry, the Beach Boys just openly stole his riffs, and the Stones recorded standards by the bluesmen. Yet, as white bands built on what they'd started, the voice of black singers was still something distinctive and irreplaceable.

Peak

That voice had moved by the early 60s to early R&B and soul, personified first and foremost by Ray Charles and James Brown in the late 1950s, but followed over the next decade by a long series of artists on the Motown and Stax Records labels: Wilson Pickett, Otis Redding, Aretha Franklin, the Four Tops, the Temptations, the Supremes, and many others. Ray Charles, James Brown and the Motown/Stax artists were commercially anchored in black radio and live performances to black audiences, but they crossed over repeatedly to white radio, and their work was frequently covered or influential on white artists. The instruments, the beats, the styles of production - both black and white artists of that era had a lot in common. And the relationship wasn't entirely one-way, either; the Motown/Stax sound was influenced by white writers and producers like Jerry Leiber, Mike Stoller and Phil Spector, and leading black artists would also cover songs by white artists. Consider Wilson Pickett's version of Hey Jude, written by Paul McCartney and featuring the guitar stylings of Duane Allman.

The point of the foregoing is to emphasize that the 1960s were a high watermark for the cross-pollination of the most popular genres white and black music, and that a major component of that was the mainstream white rock audience's acceptance of black artists and the unique sounds of black vocalists. True, African-American influences have always been a part of the American musical scene, from the influence of the old 'Negro' spirituals on American folk music to the influence of black jazz on the Big Band era; there's really no dispute that no other racial, ethnic or religious group has had as much influence on American music. And true, too, music's audiences were still basically segregated in the 60s - white listeners listened mainly to Top 40 and the newly-emerging FM rock radio, while black audiences generally listened to R&B and Soul stations. And true as well that while black artists influenced and were influenced by white artists, and white audiences embraced black artists, it seems that black audiences still mostly listened only to black artists. Musical integration was never truly symmetrical. But the musical ferment of that era was nonetheless the product of remarkable talents of both races feeding off one another's sounds.

Jimi

At the apex of this era, in 1967, rock got its first true black superstar. Jimi Hendrix wasn't an R&B musician crossing over to rock; he was straight-up rock n' roll, the archetypical guitar god. He was also his own lead vocalist, and while vocals were never Hendrix's forte, there was no confusing him with a white man.

Did Hendrix bring a lot of black fans into rock, or even into his own music? I can't answer that question, and I'm not sure the data is really out there to study the question in a systematic way, but it's hard to detect any real signs of a cultural shift among black audiences (check out the sea of white faces in the crowd shots at any Hendrix show). I do know that his career lasted only four short years after Monterey, and that he died at age 27, probably leaving more great music on the table than anybody in rock history (only Duane Allman and Otis Redding could really compete). Hendrix had his share of problems handling success and more than his share of drug issues, but unlike, say, Jim Morrison, Janis Joplin or Kurt Cobain, there's nothing in Hendrix's life that makes it that hard to imagine him surviving, as Clapton and Keith Richards did, and prospering to this day as a 68 year old creative genius carrying the blues not as a pursuing demon but as an old companion, his self-designed studio still attracting younger artists. If that had happened, I have to believe that somewhere along the line, Hendrix would eventually have attracted a following both of black fans and black imitators, and maybe helped keep a bridge open from the rock world to the African-American audience.

It was not to be. There were other black rockers (e.g. Phil Lynott of Thin Lizzy), and eventually in the late 80s there were a few who tried to step into Hendrix's shoes (Lenny Kravitz, Living Colour, Slash - Slash's mother is African-American), but times had changed, and the moment could not be recaptured. There was never another time when you could find a black face among the handful of rock's biggest stars. Hendrix had come along at a moment in rock history when it was possible to imagine a genuine integration of black music and the rock world that owed so much to its black forbears. That possibility would evaporate within half a decade.

The Breakup

The world didn't change overnight when Jimi Hendrix died; it never does. But the trends started moving in different directions. Motown and Stax suffered a series of reversals between 1967 and 1972 - Otis Redding died, Sam & Dave broke up (as, later, would the Supremes and Martha and the Vandellas, as well as Sly & the Family Stone, which wasn't a Motown or Stax act but shared a similar sound), the Holland/Dozier/Holland songwriting team left Motown, and eventually Motown left Detroit in 1972, around the time Stax went into irreversible decline. Many of the signature artists of that era - the Four Tops, the Temptations - never found the same success after the early 1970s, while others (Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles) went into slower decline.

At first, the next generation of Motown artists, like Stevie Wonder and the Jackson 5, recorded in something like the old style, and by the early to mid 70s, Stevie's various experiments included funkier rock (Superstition, his best song, remains the high watermark of his rock influences). But by around 1976, tastes and trends were changing quickly. R&B and Soul moved more in the direction of crooners like Barry White and Teddy Pendergrass who had little in common with anything being done by the rock bands of the era, and then the disco craze hit, propelling stars like Diana Ross, Donna Summer and Gladys Knight to success that left the old Motown sound in the dustbin. Some mainstream rock acts (the Rolling Stones, the Grateful Dead, Rod Stewart) tried their hands at disco as well, but unlike the blues, disco had no lasting imprint on the rock world.

It's debatable, given the complex racial politics of the 70s, what drove white and black audiences in divergent musical directions from the mid-70s on, but the trends away from the Motown and blues sounds were evident on both sides. Led Zeppelin drew openly on the blues roots that traced back to Jimmy Page's Yardbirds days, but the success of Zeppelin ushered in a whole era of metal that would be almost entirely white, as were the glam rock of acts like David Bowie and Queen, the ethereal sounds of the likes of Yes, Styx, Supertramp and eventually Journey, the mellow California rock of the Eagles and Fleetwood Mac, and most of all punk, which rose and fell in parallel with disco (neither the prime years of Sex Pistols, the Clash, nor even the Ramones lasted much longer than those of the Bee Gees). (I'm simplifying here by skipping the rise of reggae, which had only a modest impact on the rock world.) The keepers of the flame of the integrated musical heritage of the mid-60s - Springsteen, Southside Johnny, even the Blues Brothers (backed by essentially the old Stax house band) - were audibly out of step with their times. And when the waters of disco and punk receded, the nascent genre of rap began to emerge.

The Aftermath

And that, for the most part, is where we stand today: despite its black roots, rock is made by and for white people, abandoned by African-American performers and audiences alike. Oh, every few years we get a black-fronted rock act - Living Colour, Lenny Kravitz, Hootie and the Blowfish, Ben Harper. But they don't represent a significant movement, anymore than Grant Fuhr represented a significant movement in the NHL. Michael Jackson's Beat It aside, the leading black performers popular with black audiences haven't set more than a toe in the rock world in the past 30 years; the lone exception would be Prince, who in his 80s heyday melded electric guitars with current funk. And Prince has been over the hill for almost 20 years. Black women have been even more absent in the ranks of rock vocalists - any list of the best straight-up rock acts of all time will get down in the hundreds before you locate a black female lead vocalist, even though the pool of talented black female singers is perennially deep, and their voices unique (as one can see by the number of major rock acts that have drawn on black women for backing vocals).

This doesn't mean that the music world is wholly segregated today - there's still crossover in other formats (like Elvis back in the day, arguably the biggest star in rap is a white man, Eminem), although surely the gulf between rock and other formats contributes to a more generally heightened level of segregation in radio and live entertainment. But the loss of black influence and interest in rock is surely a loss for rock, and a contributing cause in the fragmentation of the nation's musical culture. Some voices can never be entirely replaced.

* - Howlin' Wolf was also almost certainly the last major African-American music star named after a Republican president.

Posted by Baseball Crank at 8:54 AM | Pop Culture | Comments (12) | TrackBack (0)
Comments

I came here looking for HOF predictions, but I'm glad I found this instead. Great article.

On the musical integration side, I would've liked to see some attention given to bands like Earth, Wind and Fire, Kool and the Gang, and Parliament/Funkadelic. Although they were focused to varying degrees on disco, R&B, and funk, all of them incorporate rock to some degree.

Posted by: CJ at January 5, 2011 12:25 PM

The first party I went to without my parents, me and two other white guys went over to this black kids house where we all danced, about 12 guys, no girls, to Bowie and Fame, over again for maybe 2 hours. Those brothers did like that song and I sure learned a lot about dancing that I never used.

I think Stevie Ray Vaughn might compete for most great music still on the table.

Posted by: spongeworthy at January 5, 2011 12:58 PM

Far be it for me to go to bar for Prince but "over the hill 20 years ago" might be overstating the case a bit. He made something like $60 million in 2004 with his Musicology album (pretty damn good) and tour and played the half-time of the Super Bowl in 2007. His albums still go into the Top 5 of the Billboard charts and whatnot. He may not be what he once was, what we knew as kids and what he plays is far less "rock" than what he used to but if he is washed us then sign me up for that.

Posted by: jim at January 5, 2011 6:18 PM

Really Prince is washed up... The guy does his own distribution and publishing that is the reason you do not hear much from him one mainstream radio, unless you are a fan. And he still racks in the cash and sales. What I would suggest is that you take some time d/l some of his stuff over the last five years. You will notice the heavy influence he has over the entire music scene.

Posted by: javaman at January 5, 2011 11:22 PM

Great piece, Crank. Really enjoyed this.

Posted by: Mike at January 6, 2011 6:55 AM

No love for Buddy Holly as a too-soon gone genius?

Posted by: Bensdad00 at January 6, 2011 2:23 PM

Great videos.
Howlin' Wolf rules!

Posted by: Berto at January 7, 2011 11:28 AM

One name you failed to mention is Michael Bloomfield. He was the first guitar superstar, before Clapton/Hendrix/etc. Through him, people like Muddy Waters, BB King, etc. were given access to white audiences. Of course, it was Muddy who gave Bloomfield a way to cut his chops in the Chicago clubs so Michael was only paying back his mentor.

Speaking of leaving music on the table, anyone who has heard Moon Tune, East West, and other great Bloomfield works knows why he was such a force in the 60's. His demise from drugs took alot of good music from us.

Posted by: Lee at January 8, 2011 9:23 AM

This is a great article. I can think of two reasons why black musicians, and particularly black vocalists, might have been turned away from rock in the 1960's. Not only were white musicians predominantly taking rock to the next level, but white -English- rock musicians: the Stones, the Who, the Yardbirds, the Animals (early on) - the whole British Invasion. While white America had at least some cultural connection to England, I can see why this music might not speak to a young, black American musician in the 1960's.

The second reason is that in the 1960's, the guitar, rather than the vocals became the focal point of rock music - thanks mainly to those white Englishmen. Blues, R&B and and even early rock for the most part had been about the voice, with the guitar playing more of a secondary role. If you were black and had a great voice in the 1960's, you were probably drawn to the R&B scene, where your talents were more in the forefront.

But as you note, the R&B scene faded by the 1970's, and by that time, apart from Hendrix, there were no significant black rock vocalist role models to follow, and even Hendrix was known more for his guitar playing than his singing.

Posted by: MVH at January 10, 2011 9:58 PM

Three words: Read Martha Bayles.

The book is called Hole in our Soul, and it will explain much of what you puzzle about here.

And here are some more words, my words, not Bayles's:

A lot of bad things happened, a lot of very shamefully reductive appropriations by whites occurred, but it should be noted that among the various factors causing the divide, and the more-important decline of pop music generally and American black pop music specifically, is that there was something about the funk groove that was ultimately addictive/deadening and that ultimately made blacks less soulful musically than they were in the golden age. Not that you cannot but love James Brown, along with the best disco and hip-hop, but something about the funk thing is/was problematic for the overall health of music. Does that ring a bell with anyone?

Posted by: Carl Eric Scott at January 12, 2011 8:10 AM

sponge - I'd agree that Stevie Ray is not far behind in terms of music left unmade, but I'd still leave Hendrix, Duane Allman and Otis a little ahead of him.

jim - Fair enough that I haven't heard anything Prince has released since about 1991, but I think it is fair to say that he's a long way removed from having any real impact on the music scene any longer.

Lee & Carl - I confess to being unfamiliar with Bloomfield's work or Bayles' book.

Posted by: Crank at January 13, 2011 2:03 PM

I wonder if Fleetwood Mac is aware that it has an increasing fanbase in the African-American community? I present myself as evidence,as well as the comments made by listeners to their music on site like you-tube.

Posted by: Brion at January 14, 2011 1:05 PM
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